Plants at Tumbi Wetlands

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Plant Variety

  • Aquatic Plants
  • Climbers
  • Graminoid
  • Grass
  • Ferns and others
  • Herbs
  • Lily and Orchids
  • Reeds and Sedges
  • Shrubs
  • Small Trees
  • Trees
  • Others
  • Canopy Trees

  • See plants listed alphabetically
  • The area in this reserve where Tumbi Wetlands Bushcare works contains two separate regions which merge together without any distinct boundaries.

    One is a variant of the Woolybutt-Melaleuca Forest which exists on shallower soils and in which the Woolybutt (Eucalyptus longifolia) is rare or absent, where in this case, the canopy is provided by Eucalyptus robusta and Eucalyptus resinifera ssp. resinifers. It contains an understorey of Melaleucas and has about 75% grass cover.

    The other is an Alluvial Floodplain Shrub Swamp Forest in which the canopy trees include the three present at Tumbi Wetlands Bushcare with a significant shrubby understorey.

    As a result of this it has quite a large number of species.
    So far more than 200 have been identified.


    Aquatic Plants

  • Alternanthera denticulata Lesser Joyweed
  • Ludwigia peploides Water Buttercup
  • Persicaria strigosa Spotted Knotweed
  • Persicaria praetermissa
  • Persicaria decipiens Spotted Knotweed
  • Ranunculus inundatus River Buttercup
  • Typha orientalis Cumbungi

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  • This area is an ephemeral wetland: sometimes it's wet and sometimes much of it is dry.
    There are usually two separate areas of water: one almost permanently wet and supporting a community of aquatic and water loving plants and the other places at the outlets from storm water drains which can dry out after a few months without rain.
    These small basins collect a lot of rubbish off the streets, are quite subject to weed invasion and require regular bushcare attention.

    Climbers and Creepers

  • Bacopa monnieri (Bacopa, Brahmi)
  • Billardiera scandens (Apple Berry)
  • Cassytha glabella (Slender Devil's Twine)
  • Cassytha pubescens (Common Devil's Twine)
  • Cissus hypoglauca(Native Sarsparilla)
  • Hibbertia scandens (Climbing Guinea Flower )
  • Glycine tabacina
  • Glycine clandestina
  • Hardenbergia violacea
  • Kennedia rubicunda
  • Pandorea pandorana (Wonga Wonga Vine)
  • Parsonsia straminea
  • Podolobium scandens
  • Polymeria calycina
  • Smilax glyciphylla(Native Sarsparilla)
  • Stephania japonica var discolor

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  • Most of these creepers and climbers are found in the areas which are regularly dried off and support heathy vegetation.

    Some like the parasitic Cassythas are especially found with the shrubs up to about 2 metres tall, Parsonia straminea can be seen reaching to tops of some really tall trees and the Glycines are likely to be found among the grasses and sedges.

    The others seem happy to trail along the ground or gain support from shrubs and small trees.


  • Dianella revoluta var. revoluta
  • Dianella caerulea
  • Lomandra confertifolia
  • Lomandra multiflora
  • Lomandra longifolia
  • Lomandra glauca
  • Triglochin striata - Streaked Arrowgrass
  • Xanthorrhoea media

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  • Graminoids are a diverse group of plants which are grass-like in that they grow in tussocks or are tuffed. They include grasses, sedges, and lilies among others, all monocotyledons. It is a grouping of plants used by Stephen Bell in his 2002 mapping of the area and used here for consistency with his work.


  • Austrodanthonia tenuior(Wallaby grass)
  • Deyeuxia quadriseta(Reed Bent-grass)
  • Dichelachne inaequiglumis(a Plumegrass)
  • Dichelachne micrantha (Shorthair Plumegrass)
  • Dichelachne rara(another Plumegrass)
  • Echinopogon caespitosus (Tufted Hedgehog grass)
  • Echinopogon ovatus(Forest Hedgehog grass)
  • Entolasia marginata (Bordered Panic Grass)
  • Entolasia stricta (Right-angle Grass)
  • Imperata cylindrica var. major (Bladey Grass)
  • Ischaemum australe var. australe
  • Lachnagrostis filiformis (Blown Grass)
  • Microlaena stipoides (Weeping Meadow Grass)
  • Oplismenus aemulus (Basket grass)
  • Oplismenus imbecillis (Basket grass)
  • Paspalidium distans
  • Poa labillardierei (Tussock Grass)
  • Poa sieberiana (Fine-leafed Tussock Grass)
  • Sacciolepis indica (Indian Cupscale Grass)
  • Themeda australis (Kangaroo grass)

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  • Unlike exotic grasses, most of the grasses here at Tumbi Wetlands grow in tufts or tussocks. Of all the species listed to the left, only Entolasia marginata (or Bordered Panic Grass) and Oplismenus species ( or Basket grasses) have the ability to run with rhizomes or stolons, or by rooting at the nodes.

    Ferns and others

  • Adiantum aethiopicum - Maidenhair Fern
  • Adiantum hispidulum -Rough Maidenhair Fern
  • Asplenium australasicum - Bird's Nest Fern
  • Blechnum nudum - Water Fishbone Fern
  • Gleichenia dicarpa - Pouched Coral Fern
  • Hypolepis muelleri - Harsh Ground Fern
  • Christella dentata - Binung
  • Cladonia furcata - Cup Lichen
  • Cyclosorus interruptus
  • Cythea cooperi - Straw Treefern
  • Lindsaea linearis - Screw Fern
  • Lindsaea microphylia - Lacy Wedge Fern
  • Pellaea nana - Dwarf Sickle Fern
  • Pteridium esculentum - Bracken Fern
  • Schizaea bifida - Forked Comb Fern
  • Schizaea dichotoma - Fan Fern

  • Pyrhobryum parramattense - a Moss

  • Selaginella uliginosa - Swamp Selaginella

  • Cladonia furcata - a lichen, which is actually a community of 2 different species

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  • As they are located other fern-like plants will be included in this list.

    As the opportunity arises, close-ups of the part of the fronds carrying the spore producing structures, will be included as an inset to the fern photos. While not quite a "fingerprint" for the species, it certainly helps in the identification of them.


  • Centella asiatica
  • Comesperma sphaerocarpum (Fairy Wings)
  • Comesperma ericinum (Matchheads)
  • Commelina cyanea
  • Dichondra repens
  • Drosera peltata (Sundew)
  • Epaltes australis(Spreading Nut-heads)
  • Geranium solanderi (Native Geranium)
  • Gonocarpus micranthus (Creeping Ragwort)
  • Goodenia bellidifolia(Daisy-leaved Goodenia)
  • Goodenia heterophylla (Variable-leaved Goodenia)
  • Goodenia paniculata
  • Goodenia stelligera(Spiked Goodenia)
  • Hydrocotyle peduncularis
  • Hydrocotyle tripartita
  • Lobelia alata
  • Opercularia varia
  • Pratia purpurascens (White Root)
  • Scaevola ramosissima
  • Stylidium lineare (Trigger Plant)
  • Velleia spathulata
  • Viola hederacea
  • Viola betonicifolia
  • Wahlenbergia species (Native Bluebell)
  • Xanthosia tridentata

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  • 14 of these 24 species of herbs are either ground cover plants or ones that closely hug the ground but several are quite tall and the Matchheads bush can reach heights well over a metre.
    NB: A herb is any vascular plant that never produces a woody stem.

    Lilies, Irises and Orchids

  • Burchardia umbellata Milkmaids
  • Caesia parviflora var. vittata Blue Grass Lily
  • Dianella caerulea
  • Dianella revoluta var. revoluta
  • Patersonia sericea Silky Purple Flag
  • Thysanotus tuberosus Fringe Lily
  • Tricoryne elatior Yellow Rush-Lily
  • Haemodorum corymbosum Blood Root

  • Arthrochilus prolixus Wispy Elbow Orchid
  • Caladenia catenata White Fingers
  • Calochilus paludosus Red Beardie
  • Cryptostylis subulata Large Tongue Orchid
  • Cymbidium sauve Snake Flower
  • Pterostylis grandifolora Superb Greenhood
  • Pterostylis nutans Nodding Greenhood
  • Pterostylis curta Blunt Greenhood
  • Pterostylis oblonga Coastal Maroonhood
  • Lyperanthus sauveolens Brown beaks
  • Thelymitra species Sun Orchid

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  • Most of these lilies flower regularly but of this list of orchids only 5 have flowered regularly, the three Greenhoods, the Large Tongue Orchid and the Brownbeaks. In the spring of 2006, all of them flowered following fire in the area in December 2005, but since then only the above mentioned 5 have been seen regularly.
    The endangered orchid Arthrochilus prolixus was first seen in early 2011 but did not flower in 2012.

    Sedges and Rushes

  • Baumea teretifolia
  • Baumea rubiginosa
  • Carex breviculmis
  • Carex fascicularis
  • Carex inversa
  • Cyperus difformis
  • Cyperus flaccidus
  • Cyperus haspan subsp. haspan
  • Cyperus polystachyos
  • Cyperus trinervis
  • Eleocharis sphacelata
  • Gahnia clarkei
  • Isolepis inundata
  • Isolepis nodosa
  • Juncus bufonius
  • Juncus holoschoenus
  • Juncus usitatus
  • Lepidosperma laterale
  • Lepyrodia scariosa
  • Ptilothrix deusta
  • Schoenus apogon
  • Schoenus melanostachys

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  • Gahnia clarkei aka Razor Grass, is clearly the the most abundant sedge in this area, but in some parts others become dominant.

    For example in one gently sloping grassland Lepyrodia scariosa is completely dominant.

    Some sedges e.g. Juncus holoschoenus likes to be wet but Carex fascicularis seems just as happy wet as dry, while Lepidosperma laterale grows in a place hardly ever inundated by water.

    There is a large amount of the exotic sedge Cyperus eragrostis but to date we have not attempted to start removing it.


  • Acacia brownii
  • Acacia elongata
  • Acacia falcata
  • Acacia floribunda White Sally Wattle
  • Acacia longifolia var.longifolia Sydney Golden Wattle
  • Acacia myrtifolia
  • Acacia sauveolens Sweet Wattle
  • Banksia spinulosa Hair-pin Banksia
  • Banksia oblongifolia
  • Boronia polygalifolia Dwarf Boronia
  • Bossiaea stephensonii
  • Breynia oblongifolia
  • Daviesia ulicifolia Gorse Bitter Pea
  • Dodonaea triquetra Common Hop Bush
  • Exocarpos cupressiformis Native Cherry
  • Gompholobium latifolium Broad leafed Wedge Pea
  • Gompholobium pinnatum Pinnate Wedge Pea
  • Goodenia ovata Hop Goodenia
  • Hibbertia empetrifolia
  • Hibbertia riparia
  • Isopogon anemonifolius Drumsticks
  • Leucapogon lanceolatus Lance Beard Heath
  • Leucopogon juniperinus Prickly Beard-heath
  • Leptospermum juniperinum Prickly Tea tree
  • Leptospermum polygalifolium Lemon-scented Tea-tree
  • Leptospermum trinervium Broad leafed form
  • Melaleuca ericifolia Swamp Paperbark
  • Melaleuca linariifolia Snow in Summer
  • Melaleuca sieberi Sieber's Paperbark
  • Melaleuca thymifolia
  • Mirblia speciosa Purple Mirbelia
  • Omalanthus populifolius Bleeding Heart Tree
  • Ozothamnus diosmifolius White Dogwood, Pill Flower, Sago Bush
  • Persoonia lanceolata Lance Leaf Geebung
  • Persoonia levis Smooth Geebung
  • Persoonia linearis Narrow-leafed Geebung
  • Pimelia linifolia Rice Flower
  • Polyscias sambucifolia
  • Pultenaea paleacea
  • Pultenaea retusa
  • Pultenaea villosa
  • Sphaerolobium vimineum
  • Woolsia pungens
  • Xanthosia tridentata

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  • As explained above, the intersection of the two different ecological communities likely explains the large variety in the shrub population, 32 species listed. It is noticeable that some species are more abundant in one area than the other but there is a clear overlap between the two areas.
    Note that a shrub is a woody plant less than 5 metres high, either without a distinct main axis, or with branches persisting on the main axis almost to its base. The smallest are the 30 cm high Pinnate Wedge Pea and the Dwarf Boronia, while the Acacia longifolia reaches over 5 metres in some cases.

    What may bee seen as a shrub in the wetland may mature into a small tree. If you cannot find a particular shrub in this list try the list of SmallTrees following.

    Small Trees

  • Glochidion ferdinandi Cheese Tree
  • Acacia falcata
  • Acacia floribunda White Sally Wattle
  • Acacia irrorata
  • Allocasuarina torulosa Forest Oak
  • Banksia integrifolia Coast Banksia
  • Cupaniopsis anacardioides Tuckeroo
  • Eucalyptus resinifera ssp. resinifera Red Mahogany
  • Melaleuca decora White Feather Honeymyrtle
  • Melaleuca linariifolia Snow in Summer
  • Melaleuca sieberi Sieber's Paperbark
  • Melaleuca nodosa Ball Honeymyrtle
  • Melaleuca styphelioides Prickly-leavedPaperbark
  • Pittosporum undulatum Sweet Pittosporum

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  • Some of these small trees are found in the wetland as shrubs, so if you are looking for a small tree not in this list, try the list of shrubs above.


  • Angophora costata Sydney Red Gum, Smooth-barked Apple

  • Eucalyptus robusta Swamp Mahogany

  • Eucalyptus haemastoma Scribbly Gum

  • Eucalyptus resinifera ssp. resinifera Red Mahogany

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  • While the canopy consists mostly of the 3 trees listed below, there are a number of quite large trees with lower occurrence frequency.


  • Livistona australis      Cabbage Tree Palm

  • Muelleria eucalyptoides      Mistletoe

  • Pyrhobryum parramattense      a moss

  • Cladonia furcata     a lichen

  • Selaginella uliginosa     Not a moss, not a fern

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  • These are a few plants that do not fit neatly into any of the other groups above.

    Main Canopy Trees

    Eucalyptus Robusta
    Angophora costata
    Eucalyptus haemastoma
    For Understorey Plants